ORCID ID: 0000-0002-6395-7251
ORCID ID: 0000-0002-8508-9395
Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University, Kyiv, Ukraine
DEVELOPMENT OF KAMIANETS IN PODILIA AS A COMPLEX TOURIST DESTINATION: RESOURCES OF CULTURAL-COGNITIVE, NATIONAL-PATRIOTIC, MYSTICAL AND MEMORIAL TOURISM
The peculiarities of the resource base for the complex development of tourism in Kamianets-Podilskyi, in particular the cultural-cognitive, national-patriotic, mystical and memorial types of tourism are revealed. Resources of cultural, cognitive and mystical tourism are considered on the example of images of Coats of arms and Latin inscriptions on ancient buildings of the city-fortress. Tourist resources during the subordination of Podillya to the authorities of other states were emphasized: “Lithuanian” Kamianets, “Polish” Kamianets, “Turkish” Kamianets, “Armenian” Kamianets, “Jewish” Kamianets. The Polish-Lithuanian period of the city’s existence has left behind numerous Coats of arms and inscriptions in Latin on fortifications, including “autographs” of two Polish kings – Stefan Batory (1585 A. D.) and Stanislaw August Poniatowski (1785 A. D.), which are extremely valuable historical and tourist attractions, in particular for the development of mystical tourism. The resources of national and patriotic tourism are related to the capital status of the city of Kamianets-Podilskyi during the UPR in 1919–1920. As for the resources of memorial tourism, they are related to the Holocaust of the Jewish population in Ukraine during World War II. Ten places of the most massive executions of Jews in Ukraine by the Nazi occupation authorities during World War II have been identified and described in the corresponding table. Crimes in Kyiv (Babyn Yar – almost 34 thousand people) and in Odessa (25 thousand people) have had the largest number of victims. The third-largest number of victims was the Kamyanets-Podilsky Massacre (23,000 people), but it was the first chronological case of the Nazi massacre of Jewish population in Ukraine. The peculiarities of the mass extermination of the Jewish population in Kamianets-Podilskyi, where a ghetto was created not only for the local Jewish population, but also for deported Jews from Hungary, are highlighted. Three “waves” of memorialization of Holocaust memorial sites in Kamianets-Podilskyi have been identified, the main monuments of the Holocaust have been described, and directions for its further memorialization and using in tourism have been proposed.
Keywords: Coats of arms and Latin inscriptions, medieval towers, the last capital of the Ukrainian People’s Republic, “Kamyanets-Podilsky massacre”, Holocaust monuments.
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Smyrnov I., Lyubitseva O., 2021. Development of Kamianets in Podilia as a complex tourist destination: resources of cultural-cognitive, national-patriotic, mystical and memorial tourism. Visnyk Kyivskogo nacionalnogo universytetu imeni Tarasa Shevchenka, Geografiya [Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Geography], 3/4 (80/81), 47-54 (in Ukrainian, abstr. in English), DOI: 10.17721/1728-2721.2021.80-81.8
Received Editorial Board 15.10.2021
Accepted for publication 09.11.2021