EXCURSION AS A METHOD OF COGNITION
ORCID iD https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2900-1598
National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine
A critical analysis of the essence of the excursion was given. It is noted that the available definitions often make focus on the scientific function of the excursion, which actually is not important. It is also not possible to consider excursion as entertainment. This is its secondary feature. A certain change in the essence of excursion occurred as a result of technical progress, which led to some reduction of the role of the tour guide. It is now possible that excursion takes place without him. The excursion is not necessarily a collective event. An individual excursion is possible as well.
A new definition of the excursion is given, which corresponds to its true essence: «excursion is a visit to interesting places in order to gain new knowledge and impressions. It is a way of spending free time and a method of getting of knowledge”. Thus, the most important function of the excursion is the getting of a new knowledge, which is a basis of other functions, in particular, educational one. In turn, knowledge is gained through the use of certain scientific methods. Typically, these methods are divided into empirical and theoretical ones, in other words, methods of data collection and methods of their processing. The first group of methods includes observation, measurement, experiment, survey. The most common method in the excursion is observation, which is at the same time an integral part of other, more complicated methods. Numerous examples are given about the use of these methods in excursions, which enrich excursions, activate excursionists.
There are also numerous theoretical methods of cognition: description, explanation, comparison, analogy, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, systematization, classification, and some others. Among these methods, the most important in the excursion is a description. In many cases, this is the only method used by tour guides. At the same time, the abuse of this method impairs the effectiveness of excursion, in particular, a result of losing the attention of excursionists. Another widely used method is an explanation. The spread of this method and its effectiveness is facilitated by the fact that it gives answers to the questions, which are not entirely clear.
Many examples have been shown that excursion involves not only the use of these methods of cognition (both empirical and theoretical), but can itself be considered as such a separate method. The peculiarity of this method is to combine the classical methods of cognition, as well as the essential components of the excursion, namely the movement of excursionists, approaching to the excursion objects, their showing and commenting. All these peculiarities have additional influence on human feelings. It can be used not only by the visual and hearing organs but also by others. This enhances the attention of excursionists and, accordingly, promotes better assimilation of information. As a result, some excursions are remembered for life.
excursion, method, function, object, cognition
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Vyshnevskyi, V., 2019. Excursion as a method of cognition. Visnyk Kyivskogo nacionalnogo universytetu imeni Tarasa Shevchenka, Geografiya [Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Geography], 2 (75), 59-63 (in Ukranian, abstr. in English), doi: 10.17721/1728-2721.2019.75.10
Received Editorial Board 24.10.2019
Accepted for publication 02.12.2019