ACCESSIBLE TOURISM FOR ALL IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
1 O. Ivanova, Senior Lecturer
2 M. Senkiv, PhD Geography, Assistant Professor
1 National University of Kyiv Mohyla Academy, Kyiv, Ukraine
2 Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine
The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism promotes the right of all people to equality in access to contemplate the resources of the planet, which, in turn, is the main principle of accessible tourism for all. Modern approaches to understanding the concepts of accessible tourism for all are analyzed in this paper. Accessible tourism for all means that any tourism product should be designed irrespective of age, gender and ability and with no additional costs for customers with disabilities and specific access requirements. Role of the principles of universal design for accessible tourism for all is characterized. In contrast to the concept of accessibility, which only applies to low-mobility categories of the population and focuses on physical access to transport and buildings, as well as access to information, the concept of universal design emphasizes creating the same conditions convenient for all users, without impersonating some of them. Three main prerequisites for the development of accessible tourism for all in the European Union are determined and characterized, in particular, existing accessibility legislation and standards at the global, European and national levels, population ageing and increase in the number of people with disabilities. There is the problem in Ukraine of the lack of accessibility standards for tourism facilities and services, so it is important to learn the experience of the European Union. The European Union population is aging and this trend will continue in the future. This phenomenon is a major challenge for the society, but at the same time, it also represents a great opportunity for local businesses and for the whole European economy. Elderly people (65 years and older) are encouraged to travel by different motives: visiting relatives, gaining cultural or gastronomic experience, they are interested in traveling on cruise ships, relaxing on the coast, participating in sports events or ethnic holidays. They tend to spend more while traveling and stay longer. Tourists with disabilities, above all, make travel decisions based on the opinions of their friends, and rely less on special offers aimed at them. Online offers and printed brochures of travel agencies influence their decision at the same level. France and the United Kingdom have the most disabled people in the EU. The European Union is the main tourism destination in the world. Five its member states (France, Spain, Italy, Great Britain, Germany) belong to the top ten countries of the world on arrival of tourists. The map of the most accessible cities of the European Union is created and the quantitative distribution of these cities by country of ownership is presented. France, Germany and Sweden are leaders in the European Union by the number of the most accessible cities in 2011-2018. Among the 23 most accessible cities, only five are the capitals of states. At the same time, the city of Ljubljana in Slovenia was twice noted by the European Commission as one of the most accessible. Elements of the tourism chain include: tourism destination management; tourism information and advertising (preparation, information and booking); urban and architectural environments; modes of transport and stations; accommodation, food service and conventions; cultural activities (museums, theatres, cinemas, and other); other tourism activities and events. On the basis of the theory of accessibility chain structure and the tourism chain, the best practices of accessible tourism for all are analyzed using the example of the city of Lyon – the great business center in France, which in 2018 was recognized by the European Commission accessible in the European Union.
Keywords: tourism chain, accessibility, universal design, European Union, Lyon.
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O. Ivanova, M. Senkiv (2019) Accessible tourism for all in the European union. Visnyk Kyivskogo nacionalnogo universytetu imeni Tarasa Shevchenka, Geografiya [Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Geography], 1 (74), 66-74 (in Ukranian, abstr. in English).
Received Editorial Board 15/05/2019
Accepted for publication 19/06/2019