THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF RECONSTRUCTION OF HOUSING STOCK IN UKRAINE
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine
The article deals with theoretical and applied aspects of the reconstruction of the housing stock, the possible directions of reconstruction of the housing stock in Ukraine are analyzed. The article deals with theoretical and applied aspects of the reconstruction of the housing stock, analyzed the possible directions of reconstruction of the housing stock in Ukraine. It was established that the complex reconstruction of existing districts is a process of transformation of the urban environment, the content and duration of which are determined by interrelated actions, which should be aimed not only at technical and technological transformation, but also on architectural and aesthetic changes, changes in the accessibility and comfort of living conditions inhabitants.
The complex approach, as a methodological principle of designing, should ensure normal living and functioning of objects in the urban environment and determine the decision to update all its elements. It is revealed that the effectiveness of the complex approach to designing the reconstruction is enabled to consider all components of the transformation object in the most important interconnections.
The article analyzes regional differences in the distribution of dilapidated and emergency housing stock. It was found that the highest values of indicators of the total area of dilapidated and emergency housing are concentrated in Kharkiv, Odesa, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Vinnytsia, Zhytomyr, Poltava and Cherkasy regions. This oblast has almost two-thirds of the total area of dilapidated and emergency housing. The fourth part of dilapidated and emergency housing in Ukraine is concentrated in Sumy, Kyiv, Lviv, Zaporozhye, Khmelnytsky, Rivne, Chernihiv, Ternopil, Kherson, Ivano-Frankivsk and Volyn regions. But only about 6% of them are in Mykolaiv, Luhansk, Chernivtsi, Kyiv, Zakarpattia and Kirovograd regions.
It was established that in Ukraine the predominant type of residential development which is to be reconstructed are the buildings of the 1960s-1980s. For the most part, these five-storey buildings that have already run out of service, are subject to demolition or reconstruction. Accordingly, the reconstruction of these areas of development is a process of deep reconstruction of the urban environment, the content of which is marked by interrelated steps in the design, planning and implementation of reconstruction activities. The organization of reconstruction should provide for the solution of issues related to the expansion of functions such as landscaping and landscaping, the organization of recreation areas and public spaces, renovation of engineering facilities, changing the functions of the first floors of buildings, the organization of parking and parking, and compliance with sanitary and hygiene requirements.
In order to reconstruct residential neighbourhoods, it is also necessary to organize internal passages and parking, to provide landscaping yard space, to arrange the functional load of the peasant territories.
The experience of reconstruction of the outdated housing stock is researched in this work. Particularly close to Ukraine are the ways, methods and principles of housing reconstruction in Europe. Significant results in the reconstruction of an outdated housing stock were Germany, Poland, Sweden, and Latvia.
It is established that possible ways of solving the problem of outdated housing stock can be a complete demolition, as well as reconstruction with the use of modern technologies. Possible methods of reconstruction may be the superstructure of floors with the use of reinforced concrete or metal frame or superstructure of other 4-5 floors with the expansion of the area of development, where the apartments will already meet the modern standards.
housing fund, reconstruction, complex approach, comfort of living, dilapidated and emergency housing fund.
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