GERMAN RURAL ETHNOCULTURAL LANDSCAPES OF THE XIX – BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY
Volovyk V., Yatsyuk V.
Vinnitsa State Pedagogical University named after Mikhail Kotsyubinsky, Vinnytsia, Ukraine
The article deals with the features of the structure of the German rural ethnocultural landscapes of Podillia in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The publications are devoted to the topic under study. The historical and cultural features of the German colonization of the studied region, which began with the XIV century, are revealed. The formation of German rural ethnocultural landscapes was different from the local ones, gaining rice of European towns. In the nineteenth century, they were represented by rural colonies that did not have a complete coverage, as Ukrainian villages. Colonies consisted of dispersed located at considerable distances of separate courtyards. Each yard was formed in the place of the bottom landscapes, in the central part of the land of the family. The colonists were engaged in agriculture. The formation of the German colonies of Eastern Galicia is due to the peculiarities of the structure of rural residential landscapes: the villages were located along the river valleys, the population exceeded the local natural resource potential. German colonies, in connection with a dense settlement system, occupied the fields or public lands of Ukrainian villages. Their topographical position is connected with low-productive landscape complexes, confined to watersheds and hills. Land plots arranged in such a way that in their structure there was a city, a hayfield, a curtain, a forest area. It is noted that the first ones were a model of the best European residential landscapes: stone and brick buildings, hard-coated roads, garden landscapes, well-groomed meadows and vineyards. It was discovered that regular colonies looked like a network of rectangular blocks, separated by two main streets, located perpendicularly; in the linear colonies the main street, which within the colony had a greater width and served as a city square, was axial. It is noted that during the formation of the peripheral resource zone of the rural ethnocultural landscape, the German colonists gave priority to hayfields and cities, and then to arable lands. It was analyzed that within the modern Podillya, the German colonies were located in enclaves: the western and northern parts of the Ternopil region, the northern part of the Khmelnitsky region (south of Volyn), and in the Vinnytsia region are distributed dispersely, in the south-eastern and northeastern parts. The landscape structure and features of nature management of the largest German agricultural colonies of Podillya: Bektersdorf, Konopovka, Mikhailina, Krasnodol are considered. The results, which indicate a positive impact on the nature of the studied region, have been obtained, which in turn has had a positive impact on the rest of the ethnocultural landscapes. Most of these ethnocultural landscapes stopped functioning in the 20-30’s of the 20th century.
ethnoculture, agricultural colonies, rural ethnocultural landscape, Germans.
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Volovyk V., Yatsyuk V. (2017) German rural ethnocultural landscapes of the XIX – beginning of the XX century. Visnyk Kyivskogo natsionalnogo universytetu, Geografiya [Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Geography], 3-4 (68-69), 103-107 (in Ukrainian, abstr. in English).