GASTRONOMIC TOURISM: EXPLORATION OF ACSYOLOGICAL CONCEPTS
Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Zhytomyr, Ukraine
A significant number of studies are devoted to national gastronomic preferences and done in the framework of ethnography, culture, history, local lore and linguistics. At the same time, the axiological features of the gastronomic discourse of various national communities have not been fully explored, despite the high degree of their importance for understanding both the general and the specific in national cultures. Gastronomic tourism, despite its importance in terms of axiological marking and ethnocultural specifics, is a little-explored area of the sphere of service and entertainment. The paper considers the status of gastronomic discourse in the aspect of turaxiology and bases the Turaksyological categories “concept” and “discourse” (understood as a situationally conditioned activity) that serve in this study to identify the turaxiological (cultural-value) characteristics of gastronomic discourse. Gastronomic discourse is described by values in the parameters of obtaining food (agriculture, hunting, fishing, shopping), cooking, household, aesthetic, ritual, social hierarchy of food priorities. Thus, the acts of communication accompanying the processes of obtaining, acquiring, processing and consuming food, cooking, in their national and cultural originality form a special system – a gastronomic discourse that is qualified in terms of axiology, since it reflects and concentrates norms, values, as universal, so belonging to a certain culture, as well as subjective, gender and social characteristics, stereotypes, traditions, signs of national self-identification. There is an inadequate depth of theoretical generalization of the material in the present period. The extraction, processing and consumption of food products is accompanied by communicative acts that, in their national and cultural identity, form a system of gastronomic discourse that should be described in terms of axiology, as it reflects ethnocultural and universal norms, values, stereotypes, characteristics and other signs of national self-identification. In the Ukrainian gastronomic discourse, “kitchen” verbalizes the axiological attitude to the Ukrainian national methods of cooking and national dishes: mainly a highly positive assessment of Ukrainian cuisine. Differentiation of female and male roles in gastronomy, where women and cuisine play a dominant role, is the value of gastronomic discourse in Ukrainian culture. The hyponyms “taste of childhood”, which is part of the concept of “taste”, accumulates the ideas and preferences of each individual and is the most subjectively coloured. There is a tendency towards a nostalgic experience of the values of the previous era. The economic aspect of healthy nutrition is given great attention – in the Ukrainian gastronomic discourse, healthy food is described as inaccessible in price, economic reasons justify the preference for harmful food. At the present stage of human activity, attractive characteristics for modern society, such as high quality of raw ingredients, highly ethical and ethical way of farming, multiculturalism are emphasized: Ukraine now deserves to acquire the status of a country of gastronomic tourism due to the mixture of culinary cultures.
gastronomic tourism, gastronomic discourse, axiological concepts, acts of communication of communication, food extraction, national and cultural identity, gastronomy, healthy food in Ukrainian culture.
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