FOREIGN ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS OF THE REGIONS OF UKRAINE: SOCIAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS
Zapotoskyi S., Parenyuk V., Sklyarov O.
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine
The article deals with theoretical and applied principles of formation of foreign economic competitiveness of Ukrainian regions. The study noted that the mechanisms of functioning and interaction of states economies of in a globalized space take place against the backdrop of two different trends, integration and disintegration. The first one manifests itself in the convergence of the world`s national economies, their interaction, the coordination of national interests. The main mechanisms of this are: the international movement of goods and services, production factors, information and information technology, and the joint provision of global security issues. Disintegration tendencies at the macro level highlight the disparity between the states of the centre (economically developed) and the periphery (with lower indicators of development). Separate consequences of such interaction can be considered strengthening competition in the world markets, the growth of imbalances in socio-economic development, the use of existing and hidden protectionist measures, etc.
It was clarified that the deepening of integration and the forced acceleration of integration processes have a multifaceted influence on the development of countries that cooperate in a context of severe market competition. For developed countries, integration increases opportunities for expanding markets, investing, technology placement. For underdeveloped countries, this often leads to the loss of their potential, resource depletion, and pollution of the territories.
According to the results of the calculation of 35 indicators of stimulators and disintegrators of foreign economic activity, the integral index of competitiveness of foreign economic activity of the regions of Ukraine has been obtained. In 2015, the most competitive regions were Kyiv, and Dnipropetrovsk region. Kyiv, Lviv, Kharkiv, Zaporizhia, Odesa and Donetsk regions took the second place in the ranking. Other regions have got into low and super low ratings.
According to the results of our research, we identified priority and the most important competitive industries in the Ukrainian economy, which are competitive in foreign markets for the periods 2005, 2010 and 2015. In accordance in 2015, by the number of repetitions, the number of competitive industries decreased to 63 units. The most widespread in Ukraine were only three industries: forestry, machinery and construction materials industry, respectively, most represented in the Lviv, Zaporizhia regions and the city of Kiev. The groups with an average level of development of industries include light industry and non-ferrous metallurgy with centres in Lviv and Zaporizhia regions, respectively. The rest of the industries have low quantifiable rates and are not weighty. The groups with an average level of development of industries include light industry and non-ferrous metallurgy with centres in Lviv and Zaporizhia regions, respectively. The rest of the industries have low quantifiable rates and are not weighty.
The evaluation of competitive industries has shown that the main trend over the past 10 years was a gradual shift in the competitive potential of the western and northern regions, with the importance of the southern regions remaining constant, and the eastern regions have suffered some losses, because of Russia’s military aggression. In particular, Luhansk and Donetsk regions suffered the greatest economic and financial losses, while Kyiv, Kharkiv, Zaporizhia, Zhytomyr and Sumy regions showed the strongest growth. The absolute leader among the regions in terms of the number of competitive industries since 2005 and still remains the city of Kiev, where the most developed are up to 80% of all sectors of the economy. Accordingly, anti champions are Kirovograd, Chernivtsi, Cherkasy, Ternopil, Kherson, Odessa, Khmelnytsky and Luhansk regions.
It is noted that the main instruments of state regulation should first of all be a protection of domestic competitor producers and investment support of weak industries through creating conditions for their investment.
competitiveness, competitive advantages, competitive industries, competitiveness index, export potential, export of goods and services, regional differentiation.
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Zapotoskyi S., Parenyuk V., Sklyarov O. (2017) Foreign economic competitiveness of the regions of Ukraine : social and geographical aspects. Visnyk Kyivskogo nacionalnogo universytetu imeni Tarasa Shevchenka GEOGRAFIYA [Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Geography], 3-4 (68-69), 73-79 (in Ukrainian, abstr. in English).