SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF THE RELIEF OF THE SOUTHERN SLOPE OF THE GREATER CAUCASUS AS AN INDICATOR OF THE ECOLOGICAL – LANDSCAPE POTENTIAL OF THE TERRITORY
1 Kuchinskaya I., Alekberova S., 2 Mamedova D.
1 Institute of Geography, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan
2 Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University, Baku, Azerbaijan
Assessment of the eco-landscape potential of mountain regions requires a systematic study of all major landscape-forming components that determine the direction and trends of development. A systemic view of the landscape allows us to reveal its structure, as well as the correlation links of components in space and time, hence the possibility of searching for variants, principles and methods for coordinating the relationship for different types of terrain. The object of our research is modern geosystems of the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus, characterized, like all mountain landscapes, by instability and special sensitivity to both natural and anthropogenic loads. Here we see a complex geosystem structure that depends on the altitude of the terrain, the exposure of slopes, the dismemberment of the relief, exogenous processes, the arrival and consumption of solar energy, and anthropogenic impacts. Landsat ETM-8 satellite imagery, 1: 100,000, 1: 200000 topographic maps, route research materials, literary sources and thematic maps of various content and scale, as well as a landscape map of Azerbaijan (2015) of scale 1: 250,000, compiled in the department “Landscape and Landscape Planning”. The main morphometric parameters of the relief, which have a significant influence on the development and formation of geocomplexes and the leading components (characteristics) of the ecollandscape environment are hypsometry, surface slope angles, slope exposition, vertical and horizontal relief decomposition, etc. Significance in the formation of the eco-landscape environment of the listed morphometric characteristics is unequal, and they affect the intensity of the eco-landscape situation to varying degrees. Based on the analysis of the obtained morphometric maps on the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus, one can distinguish three large transverse segments. The first segment covers the territory located between the rivers Mazimchay and Kishchay. The second segment covers the space that lies in the interfluve of the Kishchay-Damiraparanchay. The third section is located between the rivers Vandamchay and Girdimanchay. The results of the morphometric analysis were taken into account in the general assessment of the morphodynamic tension and the mapping of the landscape-morphometric tension of the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus. Analysis of the map showed that the area surrounding the steep slopes within the height of 1800-3000 m, where the slopes are deprived of vegetation cover Intensive dismemberment of the modern relief. They occupy a large area in the interfluve between Kurmukhchay-Dashagylchay, and also Tikanlychay-Girdymanchay.
The large morphometric tension of these regions is ensured by intensive mudflow processes and landslide processes, which causes an increase in the area occupied by mudflow foci. The increase in the volume of materials ready for demolition creates favourable conditions for mudflow and increases the likelihood of the frequency of passage of mudflows.
This region is characterized by unstable, unproductive nival-subnival and rock-meadow landscape complexes. Relatively less tension is observed in the low-middle mountain zone, especially in the Zagatala State Reserve area, where relative preservation of the forest cover reduces the rate of development of exotic processes, which enhances the dismemberment of the relief. In connection with the decrease in the relative and absolute heights of the main watershed ridge in this sector of the forest belt, denudation processes are less developed – screes and placers are less developed.
The proposed system analysis of the relief of the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus allows not only to assess its role in the formation and spatial differentiation of modern landscapes, but also demonstrates that from the point of view of the sustainable functioning of landscapes, the most favorable conditions for the development of regular relief-forming processes exist in the mid-mountain belt.
relief, morphometric tension, mountain geosystems, landscape potential.
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Kuchinskaya I., Alekberova S., Mamedova D. (2017) System analysis of the relief of the Southern slope of the Greater Caucasus as an indicator of the ecological-landscape potential of the territory. VVisnyk Kyivskogo nacionalnogo universytetu imeni Tarasa Shevchenka GEOGRAFIYA [Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Geography], 3-4 (68-69), 61-68 (in Russian, abstr. in Ukrainian, English).