TRANSPORT GEOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS AS A FACTOR OF LOSS BIODIVERSITY
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine
The content of the main types of the negative influence of geotechnical systems (GTS) of transport purpose on the natural environment was investigated and ways of minimization and prevention of this influence were determined. Functioning of technical elements of linear transport GTS – highways, railways and waterways has serious consequences in the form of fragmentation of the surrounding space. Fragmentation of natural habitats of wild species around the world is recognized as a factor that reduces biodiversity. Among all the negative impacts of man on nature, the most important contribution to the overall effect of fragmentation is caused by the development of transport infrastructure itself.
Deep interference in the natural environment during the construction of linear transport structures is revealed, the consequences of which are significant violations of natural landscapes and especially their biotic components. It causes the complete or partial destruction of biotopes. The building of roads, railways, pipelines or navigable channels artificially forms a barrier effect – the isolation of individual parts of biotopes, or fragmentation of settlements. In addition, the GTS of transport purpose causes chemical pollution of the environment by emissions from vehicles, chemicals for the control of ice-cold, etc. During the construction of transport infrastructure objects, significant volumes of soil are displaced, surface and underground runoff and the regime of adjacent landscapes are violated, relief is radically changing, vegetation is destroyed. The movement of vehicles is the reason for the soil noise and vibration. Construction of linear transport GTS causes intensification of unfavourable exogenous processes, among which the most active is water erosion and landslides. Finally, cases of direct contact of living organisms with vehicles, their death and injuries on the roads are getting more frequent.
The primary objective of reducing the risks for existing biodiversity is substantiated – the desire to minimize the effect of the road as an environmental barrier. That is, in the process of designing and constructing various transport highways, there should be developed and implemented measures that will ensure the conservation of migratory needs of wildlife. In cases where it is impossible to avoid road construction or reconstruction, it is necessary to create structures for animals crossing the roads – ecoducts. These are special bioprocesses and green bridges, culverts, drainage pipes, and the like.
The value of road bands of highways and railways as transition zones from technical construction to the natural subsystem as part of transport GTS is considered. In addition, the sidewalk is a habitat for many wildlife species, and also often serves as an environment for the spread of alien species. Road bands can ensure the connectivity of the ecological network elements and function as migratory corridors for the movement of wild species can complement and enrich the surrounding landscapes, the natural components of which are severely affected. In the process of organizing winter maintenance of roads it is necessary to limit the distribution of saline solutions in the road lane, and also to refrain from using chemicals in fall, when the growing season is not over, and in spring, when it has already begun.
Ukraine is now far behind the leading countries in developing a regulatory framework for the construction of transport infrastructure, taking into account the reduction of negative impacts on biota, in particular, the creation of wildlife passage for wildlife crossings. Therefore, the most important task of Ukraine in this area is to integrate the issues of fragmentation of natural settlements into the planning of transport network development and its monitoring, and in the long term – to develop European environmental standards in reducing fragmentation of landscapes by highways, railways, etc.
transport destination geotechnical systems, habitats fragmentation, biodiversity, biotopes destruction, ecoduct, connectivity of the environment.
- Havrylenko O.P. Heoekolohichni problemy proektuvannia, budivnytstva ta ekspluatatsii transportnykh heotekhsystem Chernivetskoi oblasti / O.P. Havrylenko // Landshafty ta heoekolohichni problemy Dnistrovsko-Prutskoho rehionu. – Chernivtsi, 2005.
- Havrylenko V.M. Rozvytok ekomerezhi z vrakhuvanniam elementiv transportnoi merezhi (vyznachennia pidkhodiv ta pilotnoho rehionu) / V.M. Havrylenko, O.M. Derkach, H.V. Kolomiiets ta in. // Visnyk Kam’ianets-Podilskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Ivana Ohiienka. Seriia Ekolohiia. – Kam’ianets-Podilskyi, 2016. – Vyp. 1.
- Derzhavni budivelni normy Ukrainy: Sporudy transportu. Mosty ta truby. Obstezhennia i vyprobuvannia. DBN V.2.3-6:2009. – K, 2009.
- Zahorodniuk I.V. Zahybel tvaryn na dorohakh: otsinka vplyvu avtotransportu na populiatsii dykykh i sviiskykh tvaryn / I.V. Zahorodniuk // Fauna v antropohennomu seredovyshchi. – Luhansk, 2006.
- Korotchenko M.V. Doslidzhennia efektyvnosti akustychnykh ekraniv na avtomobilnykh dorohakh Ukrainy / M.V. Korotchenko, Iu.S. Shevchenko // Suchasni komp’iuterno-innovatsiini tekhnolohii proektuvannia, budivnytstva, ekspluatatsii avtomobilnykh dorih i aerodromiv. – 2012.
- Kokhan O.V. Tekhnichni parametry dlia ekobezpechnoho perekhodu dykykh tvaryn cherez avtodorohy Ukrainy / O.V. Kokhan, Ia.I. Movchan // Stan pryrodnykh resursiv, perspektyvy yikh zberezhennia ta vidnovlennia. – Drohobych, 2012.
- Kokhan O.V. Upravlinnia ryzykamy shchodo zahybeli tvaryn na dorohakh Ukrainy / O.V. Kokhan // Visnyk Kam’ianets-Podilskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Ivana Ohiienka. Seriia Ekolohiia. – Kam’ianets-Podilskyi, 2016. – Vyp. 1.
- Lytvynenko T.P. Ekolohichni pryntsypy proektuvannia avtomobilnykh dorih / T.P. Lytvynenko // Haluzeve mashynobuduvannia, budivnytstvo. – 2013. – Vyp. 4(39). – T. 2.
- Onovlena transportna stratehiia Ukrainy // Elektronnyi resurs. – Rezhym dostupu : http://mtu.gov.ua/files/strategy_ukr.pdf
- Pro skhvalennia Transportnoi stratehii Ukrainy na period do 2020 roku: Rozporiadzhennia Kabinetu Ministriv Ukrainy vid 20.10.2010 № 2174-r // Elektronnyi resurs. – Rezhym dostupu : http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2174-2010-%D1%80
- Stepura V.S. Osnovy ekspluatatsii avtomobilnykh dorih i aerodromiv : navch. pos. / V.S. Stepura, A.O. Bieliatynskyi, N.V. Kuzhel. – K., 2013.
- Shapovalov A.L. Obgruntuvannia orhanizatsii bioperekhodiv dlia tvaryn / A.L. Shapovalov, T.V. Bondar. // Visnyk KhNADU. – 2011.
- Shapovalov A.L. Doslidzhennia bioperekhodiv dlia tvaryn na avtomobilnykh dorohakh Ukrainy / A.L. Shapovalov // Avtomobilni dorohy i dorozhnie budivnytstvo. – 2013.
- Shyshchenko P.H. Heoekolohichne obhruntuvannia proektiv pryrodokorystuvannia : pidruchnyk / P.H. Shyshchenko, O.P. Havrylenko. – K., 2014.
- COST 341. Habitat Fragmentation due to Transportation Infrastructure. Wildlife and Traffic : A European Handbook for Identifying Conflicts and Designing Solutions // Web source : http://www.iene.info/wp-content/uploads/COST341_Handbook.pdf
- Seiler A. Ecological effects of roads // Web source : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.556.1764&rep=rep1&type=pdf
- Wildlife Crossings Around the World // Web source : http://www.amusingplanet.com/2012/07/wildlife-crossings-around-world.html
Gavrylenko O. (2017) Transport geotechnical systems as a factor of loss biodiversity. Visnyk Kyivskogo nacionalnogo universytetu imeni Tarasa Shevchenka GEOGRAFIYA [Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Geography], 3-4 (68-69), 35-40 (in Ukrainian, abstr. in English).