EVOLUTION STAGES OF THE SPATIAL URBAN DEVELOPMENT
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine
The factors influencing the change of urban space were considered. Key stages of urban geohistory were emphasized and in accordance with that the main historical types of cities were grouped. Each evolution stage of the spatial urban development was in detail analyzed. The main features, processes, and superior system of settlement for all historical types of cities were defined. Outstanding characteristics of all historical types of cities of all ages were determined and described. A table for features of historical types of cities on key indicators was designed. A decisive influence of economic systems on urban form and its social geography was defined. The influence of the transition of settlements from the early preindustrial economy to the classical industrial city through a capitalist economy, and later to modern approaches and trends in the so-called theory of “post-industrial” city through research of urban geohistory was traced. The way of decay of urban planning of preindustrial age from the rigidly regulated by the state, however well-ordered and well-thought-out planning on the basis of an orthogonal grid in ancient cities, to the spontaneous and disordered development in the Middle Ages, when the core of the city was the fortress and monastery, was studied. Typicality of the cities of the industrial age of the return from the uncontrolled growth, when the decisive role was played by differentiated rents for land in the early models of the industrial city, to the functional zoning in the age of modernism was defined. Urban planning in the post-industrial age in terms of the traditional city through the global processes of urbanization, which create new socio-spatial forms of settlements (metropolitan region, multicentered metropolitan regions) were described. The impact of globalization on the urban space and on creation of new forms of urban settlements was considered. Social and economic features that indicate the development of postmodern metropolis were considered.
preindustrial city, ancient city, medieval city, “ideal city”, industrial city, city of modernism, post-industrial city
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